In creating fixed-income analytic models, Andrew Kalotay Associates draws upon pioneering research published by Dr. Kalotay and his associates over more than three decades. A member of the Fixed Income Analysts Society’s Hall of Fame, Dr. Kalotay’s innovations include the ratchet bond and ratchet mortgage; the Volatility Reduction Measure (for hedge effectiveness testing under FAS 133); and the concepts of refunding efficiency as applied to both corporate and municipal bonds and mortgages. He has authored or co-authored more than 50 journal articles on a wide range of topics. 

Mortgage-Backed Securities and Mortgages

Bond Valuation and Structuring

Debt Management

  • Calling and Refunding
  • Structured Transactions and Interest Rate Derivatives
  • Tax-Driven Transactions
  • Accounting and Regulatory Finance

Municipal Finance - For Academics

Municipal Finance - For Practitioners

Wealth Management

Consumer Finance




Recent Research

Testing Hedge Effectiveness for FAS 133: The Volatility Reduction Measure

Journal of Applied Corporate Finance (Winter 2001)

The VRM, a ratio-based statistic invented and patented by Andrew Kalotay Associates, fulfills the spirit of FASB’s recommendations for hedge effectiveness testing, while correcting their major shortfalls. It can be used for both prospective and retrospective testing.

The Challenge of Managing Credit Spreads: New Tools on the Horizon

Journal of Applied Corporate Finance (Fall 1999)

While corporate credit spreads vary just as underlying Treasury yields do, they are harder for corporate treasurers and other market participants to hedge against. Standard & Poor’s credit indices derived from market prices of selected liquid bonds offered a means to revolutionize the mangement of credit spreads.

Ratchet Bonds: Maximum Refunding Efficiency at Minimum Transaction Cost

Journal of Applied Corporate Finance (Spring 1999)

The ratchet bond structure, whose indexed coupon resets periodically only when rates fall, represents a superior alternative to callable bonds. Because it automatically lowers interest payments when rates decline, the inefficiencies and transaction costs associated with calling and refunding are eliminated.

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